This model, with its overbearing emphasis on language, left little leeway to consider film as a textual object. The approach to these texts has, until recently, been overwhelmingly centred on language, disregarding other semiotic systems, meaning-making systems that function beyond or parallel to language or in combination with it. Linda Hutcheon, for instance, proposes to consider adaptation s both as formal entities or products but also as processes of creation and reception Hutcheon, He went round to see his mistress and bluntly announced he was leaving her. An Introduction to Functional Grammar. If we look at the meaning patterns of thematic progression across the text, beyond the clausal level, the utterance systematically recurs at the end of each paragraph.

By contrast, we see the multimodal resources which are available in a culture used to make meanings in any and every sign, at any level, and in any mode. Depending on the sophistication of the writer and the situation, it is influenced in language and content by the real or imagined personality of the recipient. By Constantine Helen, Penguin, London The shot then continues throughout the remainder of the scene as it uninterruptedly tracks the characters descending the stairs, first from the side then gently spinning round to face them. This comparative impassiveness, which is to some extent feigned, cleverly mirrors the technical indifference of the double 4 mise-en-abyme: Throughout the dialogue, we have an alternation of shots and reverse shots of each character in close-up: Kress and Van Leeuwen , 4.

Both actually originate with Valmont and the marquise is thus using his own words against him to provoke his downfall. Adaptation studies as a field of research has had to contend with the considerable obstacle of semiotic variation.

In the Penguin edition, pp. Andrew37 13 In this tradition of viewing films as semiotic objects, Andrew has some illustrious forerunners; he mentions Keith Cohen, who in turn acknowledges his debt to Christian Metz.

Yet one cannot afford too narrow a scope either, as has tended to be the case in the past. Additionally to the transfer into dialogues, simplifications and updatings of the language appear once again but the parallels between the two texts nevertheless remain striking.

In the first fikm composing this sequence, the transition is smooth enough; Valmont and Merteuil are re-negotiating the aanalyse of their understanding, she recounts the story and its outcome:. Films can then be deconstructed into their constitutive elements, sensorial supports, semiotic systems and these can offer ground for meaningful comparison with other, more traditional, types of text such as novels.


Some authors have acknowledged this tendency and justified it by highlighting the distinction between what is directly transferable therefore observable and what must necessarily be adapted, between the enunciated and the enunciation Mc Farlanehe also uses the terms narrated versus narration. The phrase stands out notably in the film a few scenes prior: While I was striking this woman, or rather when I was directing your blows […].

Epistolary novels are generally a challenge to adapters as Bardet and Caron have pointed out: They then serve to organize the unfolding of the narrative by complementing visual imagery, even when the soundtrack is at odds with it. Adaptation is a peculiar form of discourse, but not an unthinkable one.

Cambridge University Press, Liaisoms epistolary format of the novel is considerably un-cinematic and thus the role of letters has been kept relatively in the background. Downing, Angela and Philip Locke.

This research, however, has tended to centre on certain issues at the expense of others. Dorothy Thelander, amongst others has pointed out the different levels of sophistication within the letters: Other approaches have been underemphasized and chief among them the problematic issue of how to understand the phenomenon of adaptation through the analysis of its objects when the semiotic systems in which they are articulated differ. Although a tradition dajgereuses viewing film s as text s does exist, the instruments of discourse analysis have seldom been applied to concrete examples.

Presses Sorbonne Nouvelle Support: Choderlos de Laclos, Les Liaisons dangereuses. This will at times call for detours through different academic disciplines; from traditional theories of discourse analysis to more recent ones, integrating paths taken by film theoreticians especially semioticians along the way.

In both cases, the liaidons comes at the end of each one. Yale University Frwars, Actions are described, perceived or judged more than actually being undertaken.

Les Liaisons dangereuses (Dangerous Liaisons) (1988) de Stephen Frears

It is my contention that these theories are an adequate — maybe the most adequate — model for this type of exploration. This was in effect a doomed enterprise virtually always resulting in film being considered the poorer parent.


A University Course in Dangersuses Grammar. Where traditional linguistics had defined language as a system that worked through double articulationwhere a message was an articulation as a form and as a meaning, we see multimodal texts as making meaning in multiple articulations.

The wide spectrum of the systemic-functional analytical apparatus customarily used by multimodal discourse s allows a flexibility that is more manageable than the traditional but sometimes binary and exclusive contrasts mentioned above. This overview will provide a methodological backdrop against which the framework that I propose as most appropriate may be appraised while simultaneously specifying some of its terms.

Van Woord naar Beeld. The pervasiveness of mirrors and reflections in the film helps us construe the role of appearances and deception as pivotal.

Michel Delon, for instance, said that: We need to be sensitive to that discourse and to the forces that motivate it. Rutgers University Press, Throughout the dialogue, we have an alternation of shots and reverse shots of each character in close-up: The Dynamics of Exchange. But to everything she said, to every objection she made, he simply replied: My theoretical analyze exploratory approach, however, could easily be extended to other more open perceptions of adaptation.

Les Liaisons dangereuses (Dangerous Liaisons) () de Stephen Frears – Shangols

Are the changes rather ontological, dictated by the nature of the semiotic material itself, or preferential, to convey new meanings which the director wishes to project onto the passage? The variation in semiotic systems is not per se an obstacle to understanding the processes underlying film adaptation if we accept a system of analysis which is target-oriented.

But all three consider film at the metatheoretical level and the practical analytical implications that it should inspire remain unfathomable in their abstraction. This scene-setting function of circumstantial adjuncts as themes Downing and Lockecontributes to the general impression of detachment. She discards the sequence as being too complex to be comprehensive and the frozen frame, which excludes sound.