What is emergent media at one moment becomes merely new in the next and may be catego- rized as established soon thereafter. Like most online versions, the petition did not provide a way of verifying the identity of the signatories, leaving the door open for multiple signatures under assumed names and other forms of duplicity. Aftabearab is the home of moast poplure arabic sogns, watch your favourite songs on aftabearab. The state-sponsored actions examined in this chapter— including attempts to shape discourses on and about Weblogistan— reveal that it also appreciates the potential of the blogosphere for promoting its own cultural and political agendas. Vast distribution, however, comes at a price: The following posts provide examples of noncom- pliance: Claiming the Persian Gulf:

Thank you for pushing me for clarity when I hid behind ambiguities, for your technical assistance, and for maintaining your sense of humor during my more dramatic writing moments. The most visible of these has been the work of legal scholars, who have found an audience among mainstream readers. In his view, blogging technologies had been embraced too quickly with- out adequate consideration of them as new forms of media. Second, this chapter considers a number of state-sponsored actions aimed at shaping and using Weblogistan. See, for example, Omid Mehdinejad, Peesh az Oqyanoos: In other words, while it may have been suc- cessful in further entrenching the importance of Ayatollah Khomeini to those who constitute the base of support for the government, the blogging competition was unlikely to stir the sentiments of disaffected youth. From producing and participating in one of the most vibrant blogo- spheres during the early days of Web 2.

Annabelle Sreberny and Gholam Khiabany have suggested in their book on the blogo- sphere that understanding the digital turn in Iranian media requires that it be assessed in the context of previous and existing policies, technologies, and political dynamics Sreberny and Khiabany Majmoe-e Sher-e Moqavemat [Before the ocean: So cial Media and the Message 85 Throughout this spisode, state episose and their supporters also took advantage of social media. Our sisters are working in whore houses in Dubai and other Sheikhdoms with full knowledge of the Iranian government.


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The Internet seemed poised to transcend other rigid power structures such as those pertaining to gender. A closer look at several examples illustrates how this has been the case. The archives that remain from the pre-election days are therefore all the more valuable: However, it played an important role on the Iranian Internet, especially because it marked the beginning of a transition to the era of social media.

A convergence of new and old media was apparent as users wrote e-mails, made phone eipsode, and sent faxes, sharing and sometimes reproducing the texts of their commu- nications with those they had contacted. To treat such blogs as outliers is to overlook the diversity of and contradictions in 95 Iran. Many of the consequences of the develop- ment of YouTube may be explained in terms of its features, especially its social networking elements.

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Muhammad Rizwan Admin Organization: The short-lived Web site of the Persian Gulf Defense Fund is another example of a page that cropped up during this period and was entirely dedicated to the Persian Gulf issue. In this period, material written in Persian, mostly by Iran-based bloggers, began to appear, signaling the dawn of the blogosphere era. For many, particularly young seg- ments of the population in Iran, the victory of the reformists around shegr time the Internet became popular increased hope that a radically different era would arise from the intersection of new media and new politics.

The chapter examines two key moments in the surge of social media, both of which epiosde innovative uses of digital media and indicate its pitfalls. This feature and other aspects of Friendfeed were incorporated into Facebook after it acquired the service in August For some, blogs are like a diary. He also proudly credited blog- ging Iranians as being in the vanguard of activism on the issue. Members of the Diaspora also participated in this new use of media because they epiisode able to watch the debates online or on sat- ellite television stations.

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The senior members of my department, Stephen McKenna and Alexander Russo, have been very patient and generous in answer- ing my numerous queries about publishing and academic life in gen- eral. In his inau- gural post inhe explicitly talked about blogs as instruments of cultural and political warfare. The now-private entry was available at http: Although the question of the proper way to refer to the Persian Gulf is often linked to the contemporary political situation in any given moment of perceived crisis, the core issues of concern remain relatively stable, thus providing a constant for measuring how devel- opments in digital technologies are used.


A public posting by an indi- vidual sparked the debate and a grassroots effort sustained the action that followed. For example, Andishmandan, who was angry with a fellow commenter who had apparently questioned the importance of religion, posted a response that made his vexation clear through abbre- viations and an unorthodox use of capitalization: The number of publications on the topic is so large that a multivolume compilation of annotated bibliographies has been published Boroumand The Taskforce traced its origin to the Persian Gulf Organization, a predecessor founded in In Novemberfor example, only a few months after the presidential election, Supreme Leader Ayatollah Khamenei said in a speech to his supporters: For those who did not have access to the televised debates, Friendfeed acted as a live transcript, albeit one that was accompanied with heated editorializing.

The activism was initiated and sustained online in ways that tapped into the full capacity of available technologies. They have also critiqued accounts that draw a monolithic portrait of the Iranian blogosphere, instead calling for proom that understand digital media in relation to previous and existing policies, technologies, and political dynamics Sreberny and Khiabany Yet she does not shy away from taking up serious issues and registering her objections to the policies or discourses she disagrees with.

To begin with, there has been a veritable media explosion in Iran about the concept of soft war. Various forms of social media had taken root on the Iranian Internet several years before the Iranian state faced the massive post- election protests.